"...the partnership of government, the academe, and the private sector are instrumental in ensuring that the population is provided the education and training programs relevant to labor market needs "


Education Reforms Toward Good Quality Learning
and Competitive Labor Market

by Assistant Secretary Jesus LR. Mateo                                     Filipino Version
Executive Director Maria Susan P. dela Rama
Director Maria Teresita M. Semana 1

One of the major reforms in Philippine education is the adoption of the K to 12 basic education program, which provides for additional two years in basic education. The required legislation for the K to 12 program is provided for by Republic Act 10533 or the Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013.2  This reform not only makes the Philippine basic education at par with international standards but also provides students sufficient time for mastery and concepts and skills, develops lifelong learners, and prepare graduates for higher education, employment, and entrepreneurship.

Stakeholder of the education sector may want to see the performance of the sector, especially in the context of the present resources available.  When the current administration took office in 2010, there were many backlogs in teachers, classrooms, seats, textbooks. The Department of Education (DepED) reported in terms of the 2010 backlog, as far as learning materials are concerned, these have been almost completed/delivered as of December 2012.  The teacher backlog has already been filled in 2013 if we will count the local government unit (LGU)-hired and Kinder volunteers. In terms of classrooms constructed, the DepED is poised to fill the 66,800 backlog within the year. (Table 1)

Table 1. DepED Achievement in Resources


2010 Backlog


Classrooms            66,800  43,424 classrooms constructed
23,376 ongoing construction 
Teacher items          145,827  102,623 new items created
43,204 Kinder Volunteers and LGU-hired 
Textbooks    61,700,000  1:1 Student to Textbook   3
Seats      2,500,000  1:1 Student to Seat Ratio  3
Water and sanitation facilities  135,847*   52,587 Completed
5,413 Ongoing Construction
70,869 Ongoing Procurement 


Source: Department of Education
1 constructed as of June 30, 2013; 23,276 classrooms are on-going construction
2 created as of 2013
3 as of December 31, 2012
4 completed as of July 2013; 5,413 ongoing construction; 70,869 ongoing procurement
* remaining 6,978 WATSAN in 2014 budget


In terms of learning performance for the past four school years (SY 2008-2009 to SY 2012-2012), a poor overall standing was exhibited in the National Achievement Test (NAT).  The Grade 6 pupils recorded less than 70 percent in the average NAT results while the second year high school students were even worse at less than 50 percent (Table 2).  Translating these figures to their descriptive equivalent3, particularly in SY 2011-2012, the Grade 6 pupils are moving towards mastery with 44 percent, while with more than 10 percent for high school students.  In addition, less than 15 percent are closely approximating mastery for Grade 6, while less than 0.05 percent for second year high school students.  Under mastery, less than one percent were with mastery for Grade 6 pupils, while none for second year high school students (Table 2a).

Table 2. National Achievement Test (NAT) Average Results

SY Filipino Math English Science HEKASI Overall
Grade 6  Year 2 Grade 6  Year
Grade 6  Year
2009 1
72 51 67 38 62 53 59 42 68 49 66 47
2010 2
75 58 63 40 68 47 63 44 71 39 68 46
2011 2
76 58 68 42 65 46 60 39 70 52 68 48
2012 2
69 51 66 46 66 52 66 41 66 54 67 49

Source: Department of Education
1 Sampling of private schools only
2 All private schools were included


Table 2a. Percentage distribution of examinees by achievement level

Achievement level SY 2010-2011 SY 2011-2012 SY 2012-2013
MPS Descriptive equivalent Number Percentage  (%) Number Percentage  (%) Number Percentage  (%)
Grade 6  Year 2 Grade 6  Year 2 Grade 6  Year
Grade 6  Year 2 Grade 6  Year
Grade 6  Year 2
96-100% Mastered         10,294 no data 0.55 no data           5,906 0 0.31 0        12,801 0 0.65 0.00
86-95% Closely approximating mastery      306,448 no data 16.48 no data       272,803               578 14.31 0.04      376,011             2,419 19.22 0.17
66-85% Moving towards mastery      827,234 no data 44.5 no data       845,935      156,379 44.36 11.4      854,735        244,339 43.68 17.54
35-65% Average      640,804 no data 34.47 no data       684,234   1,016,503 35.88 74.09      615,694        963,838 31.47 69.19
15-36% Low         74,114 no data 3.99 no data         97,755      198,221 5.13 14.45        97,173        182,160 4.97 13.08
5-14% Very low               140 no data 0.01 no data 191 247 0.01 0.02 228 174 0.01 0.01
0-4% Absoluely no mastery                   6 no data 0.00 no data 13 39 0.00 0.00 34 23 0.00 0.00

Source: Department of Education


As far as the Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET), the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) is aggressively providing the needed TVET programs to minimize the jobs/skills mismatch. Innovative measures are in place to increase the employability of TVET graduates.  As of 2012, TVET provision is delivered by a network of 4,509 public and private institutions. The programs are registered with TESDA to ensure that they meet the minimum standards set by industry in terms of curriculum, trainers’ qualifications, facilities and equipment.  As of 2012, a total of 20,246 programs were registered under the Unified TVET Programs Registration and Accreditation System (UTPRAS) of TESDA (Table 3).  Together with industry partners, a total of 239 training regulations4 (TRs) were developed in consultation with industry and promulgated by the TESDA Board (Table 4).  In 2012, there was total of 1.6 million TVET graduates and 85 percent of those assessed were certified (Table 5).  The certification ensures that the graduates and skilled workers have the necessary competence to perform the tasks consistent with the required standards in the workplace.

Table 3. TVET Institutions (Public and Private) by Registered Programs
by Region: as of 2012

Region Registered Programs TVET Institutions
WTR NTR Total Private Public Total
NCR 3,388 862 4,250 995 43 1,038
CAR 330 119 449 106 15 121
l 1,367 41 1,408 222 29 251
ll 548 10 558 93 24 117
III 1,701 359 2,060 416 33 449
IV-A 2,278 220 2,498 552 31 583
IV-B 313 10 323 68 15 83
V 1,396 107 1,503 221 38 259
VI 825 48 873 180 38 218
VII 966 390 1,356 299 41 340
VIII 694 15 709 100 38 138
IX 912 36 948 158 24 182
X 867 17 884 164 23 187
XI 677 34 711 180 14 194
XII 993 29 1,022 196 5 201
Caraga 444 23 467 61 30 91
ARMM 221 6 227 48 9 57
Total 17,920 2,326 20,246 4,059 450 4,509

Source of Data: TVET Systems Development Office (TSDO), TESDA
Note: WTR - With Training Regulation; NTR - No Training Regulation


Table 4. Promulgated Training Regulations (as of September 2012)

Sector Number of TRs Percent Share
Agriculture and Fishery 19 7.9
Automotive and Land Transportation 37 15.5
Construction 47 19.7
Decorative Crafts 2 0.8
Electronics 9 3.8
Footwear and Leathergoods 1 0.4
Furniture and Fixtures 1 0.4
Garments 3 1.3
Health, Social and Other Community Devt. Services 32 13.4
Heating, Ventilation, Airconditioning and Refrigeration 5 2.1
Information and Communications Technology 17 7.1
Maritime 5 2.1
Metals and Engineering 28 11.7
Processed Food & Beverages  6 2.5
Pyrotechnics 1 0.4
Tourism (Hotel and Restaurant) 17 7.1
TVET 2 0.8
Utilities 6 2.5
Wholesale & Trading 1 0.4
Total 239 100

Source: Qualifications and Standards Office/TESDA


Table 5. TVET Enrolment, Graduates, Assessed, Certified by Region: 2012

Region Enrolment Graduates Assessed Certified Certification Rate
NCR 327,396 286,645 298,664 274,847 92
CAR 54,044 52,636 25,575 20,998 82.1
I 93,047 89,390 44,379 37,211 83.8
II 74,770 67,271 25,416 21,760 85.6
III 181,567 167,095 106,045 90,687 85.5
IV-A 200,398 205,183 99,815 81,765 81.9
IV-B 72,968 63,368 29,880 24,140 80.8
V 61,724 47,211 47,092 35,904 76.2
VI 85,460 66,787 60,443 45,809 75.8
VII 220,509 186,964 39,358 36,028 91.5
VIII 41,524 36,713 28,674 27,422 95.6
IX 78,395 67,898 32,244 24,406 75.7
X 89,258 78,983 27,723 24,120 87
XI 73,984 55,365 35,378 30,449 86.1
XII 59,670 48,194 35,081 29,249 83.4
CARAGA 67,692 61,929 24,954 20,533 82.3
ARMM 22,336 19,026 7,814 5,130 65.7
Total 1,804,742 1,600,658 968,535 830,458 85.7

Source: Corporate Affairs Office (CAO), TESDA


Looking at the higher education outcomes in terms of the percentage of passers of the various licensure examinations administered by the Professional Regulations Commission (PRC), statistics show a fluctuating trend from a low of  33.9 percent  in 2010 to a high of 42.6 percent in 2012, or an average of 37.5 percent from 2008 to 2012 (Table 6).

Figure 1. Performance in Licensure Examinations
of Higher Education Graduates


Table 6. Performance in Licensure Examinations of Higher Education Graduates

Year Passing rate
2008 38.79
2009 36.19
2010 33.91
2011 35.92
2012 42.61
Average 37.48

Source: Commission on Higher Education

Stakeholders’ role towards the K to 12 Program

In response to the K to 12 program, the three pillars of the education sector, DepED, TESDA, and the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) are working together to ensure the smooth implementation of the Program.  The DepED’s 2002 Revised Basic Education Curriculum (RBEC) is based on the five learning areas: English, Pilipino, Mathematics, Science, and Makabayan for K to Grade 10. On the other hand, the General Education Curriculum (GEC) of the CHED has also been re-oriented and restructured to be attuned to the K to 12 program.

TESDA’s role is on specialization on the technical-vocational-livelihood in the K to 12 Program.  The additional two years or the senior high school will cause the embedment of national certificates (NC) I and II TVET qualifications, where they are assured that they possess the necessary skills and competencies required for a particular jobs if the graduates of senior high school opt to enter the labor force. 

Under the Enhanced Basic Education Act, TESDA’s concerns are related to curriculum development, hiring of trainers, and career guidance.  To date, TESDA has completed the review of curriculum guides, learning modules, and teachers guide for teaching the 23 TVET qualifications or courses to all incoming students in Grades 7 and 8 (Table 7). TESDA shall also assist DepED in the training of technology and livelihood eEducation teachers for senior high school. 

Table 7. Completed Curriculum Guides,
Learning Modules and Teachers Guides

1. Automotive servicing
2. Mechanical drafting 
3. Computer hardware servicing
4. Horticulture
5. Shielded metal arc welding
6. Consumer electronics servicing
7. Aquaculture
8. Dressmaking/tailoring
9. Masonry 
10. Caregiving
11. Household services
12. Plumbing 
13. Agri crop production 
14. Fish culture
15. Handicraft
16. Carpentry
17.  RAC servicing (DomRac)
18.  Electrical installation and maintenance
19.  Bread and pastry production
20.  Tile setting
21.  Animal production
22.  Food (fish) processing
23. Beauty care (nail care services)

                                    Source: Commission on Higher Education


How would K to 12 address the mismatch of education and labor demand?

As in any country, overall employment in the Philippines is a function of the absorptive capacity of the economy, as well as the quality and number of graduates of colleges and universities.  Some of the unemployment in the country is partly due to the disparity between the quality of graduates on one hand, and industry demands and requirements, on the other hand. This may be indicated by the fact that 21 percent of the country’s unemployed are college graduates, as reported by the National Statistics Office in its April 2012 and April 2013 Labor Force Survey (Table 8).  These statistics are not new.

Table 8. Unemployed Persons by Age Group and Highest Grade Completed,
April 2012 and April 2013 (In percent)

Age group April 2013 April 2012
Total 100 100
15-24 48.2 51.7
25-34 30.9 28.2
35-44 10.6 9.9
45-54 6 6.7
55-64 3.6 2.7
65 and over 0.7 0.8
Highest Grade  Completed
Total 100.0 100.0
No grade completed 0.4 0.5
Elementary 12.7 12.1
Undergraduate 5.5 5.1
Graduate 7.2 7.0
High school 42.7 44.5
Undergraduate 11 11.7
Graduate 31.7 32.8
Post secondary 8.4 8.0
Undergraduate 1.8 2.2
Graduate 6.6 5.9
College 35.8 34.8
Undergraduate 14.6 13.8
Graduate 21.3 21.0

                 Source: National Statistics Office, April 2012 and April 2013 Labor Force Survey
                 Note: Estimates for April 2013 are preliminary and may change



Undoubtedly, the skills required for employment are beyond the so-called generic competenciesof all categories of high-level manpower. In response to this, the CHED has instituted an outcome-based education and typology-based quality assurance system. These interrelated moves are embodied in CHED Memorandum Order (CMO) No. 46, Series of 2012, which aims to ensure that academic programs will produce graduates with high level academic, thinking, behavioral, and technical skills/competencies which are critical to higher job productivity and efficiency.

Findings of the March 2010 Philippines Skills Report of the Human Development Department, East Asia and Pacific Region of the World Bank showed that the quality and relevance of education and training has become the foremost cause of the emerging skills gap in the labor market.  The 2010 Report recommended that “workers be equipped with ‘functional’ skills.” 

Along this line, the CHED recognized the need for (1) rationalization of higher education and (2) establishment of links between higher education systems and the business sector.  The CHED has sought to improve quality and standards by phasing out and closing substandard programs, complying with international standards, developing research and development centers and world-class universities. The CHED has also instituted a moratorium on new colleges and universities. In 2010, CMO No. 32 was issued ordering a moratorium on oversubscribed courses to abate the burgeoning enrollment in oversubscribed courses that exacerbates the job-skills mismatch. However, after two years of its implementation, the reduction in enrolment can only be only observed for medical and allied courses.  The enrolment in business administration, education, and IT relatively still showed increments in AY 2011-2012 (Table 9).  As a complementary support given to undersubscribed and priority courses, CMO No. 04, Series of 2011, identified priority courses for 2011 to 2015 that will contribute to national development and will address certain critical manpower shortages.  Mathematics (both Pure and Applied Mathematics, including Statistics) are among these priority courses, by the way. 


Table 9. Higher Education Enrollment in Oversubscribed Courses:
AY 2007/08 – AY 2011/12

Discipline Group






a.    Over-subscribed Courses by Discipline Cluster 1,811,113 1,792,936 1,865,058 1,925,410 1,961,960
Business Administration and Related 612,481 649,549 724,215 785,305 840,192
Education and Teacher Training 370,441 325,186 352,046 400,912 449,904
Information Technology 280,596 300,882 348,462 376,046 390,826
Medical and Allied 547,595 517,319 440,335 363,147 281,038
b.   All Other Disciplines 843,181 832,449 905,907 1,012,437 1,072,007
Grand Total 2,654,294 2,625,385 2,770,965 2,937,847 3,033,967
% enrollment in oversubscribed programs  68.23% 68.29% 67.30% 65.53% 64.67%

Source: Commission on Higher Education



As regards partnership between higher education systems and the business sector, collaboration has been set up with the Information Technology and Business Processing Association of the Philippines for the promotion of talent development through faculty development, student competency assessment, and the development of the service management track in the business administration and IT curricula.  In addition, CHED has forged a partnership with IBM Philippines towards the development of business analytics as a specialization and the training of faculty members who will help deliver these programs in academic year 2013-2014.

Another recommendation in the 2010 Philippines Skills Report is the “undertaking of a thorough set of tracer studies5 to follow graduates to learn lessons about the relevance of their education wherein both graduates and employers are to be interviewed on a regular basis.”  Graduate tracer studies of TESDA and CHED are being conducted to determine relevance of education in the actual workplace and to identify career opportunities.  TESDA is conducting its TVET Impact Evaluation Study every two years as a way to gather data on the whereabouts and employability of TESDA graduates, crucial in determining the progress of the programs of the government through TESDA.  For CHED, their tracer studies were conducted in 1999 and in 2012. However, these tracers were intended for graduates only and not including their employers.

On top of these measures to make competencies dovetail to the needs of the workplace, the Philippines is also following international best practices by constructing the curriculum along the pathways of the Philippine Qualifications Framework (PQF).  Executive Order No. 83 Series of 20126 or the Institutionalization of the PQF, was signed by President Aquino last 1 October 2012.  

Lastly, the partnership of government, the academe, and the private sector are instrumental in ensuring that the population is provided the education and training programs relevant to labor market needs. After all, the education sector is expected to produce a well-equipped/skilled workforce that responds to the demands of the competitive labor market.


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Filipino Version


Repormang Pangedukasyon Tungo Sa Magandang Kalidad na Karunungan at Mapagkumpitensyang Merkado ng Paggawa

nina Assistant Secretary Jesus LR. Mateo 
Executive Director Maria Susan P. dela Rama
Director Maria Teresita M. Semana 1  

Isa sa mga pangunahing reporma sa ating bansa ukol sa edukasyon ay ang adopsyon ng K to 12 basic education program, na nagbibigay ng karagdagang dalawang taon sa basic education. Ang kinakailangang batas para sa programang K  to 12 ay naitakda sa pamamagitan ng Republic Act 10533 o ang Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013. Ang repormang  ito ay isinagawa hindi lamang upang mapantayan ng basic education sa ating bansa ang internasyonal na pamantayan, kundi para makapagbigay sa mga mag-aaral ng sapat na oras para sa karunungan at mga konsepto at mga kasanayan, makapaglinang sa  pangmatagalang pag-aaral at maihanda ang mga nagsipagtapos ng basic education para sa mas mataas na edukasyon, pagtatrabaho, at pagnenegosyo.

Maaring nais malaman ng mga stakeholder ng ​​sektor ng edukasyon ang mga nagaganap sa sektor, lalo na sa konteksto ng kasalukuyang resources na naibigay sa sektor. Nang nag-umpisang manungkulan ang kasalukuyang administrasyon noong 2010, mayroong mga backlogs sa mga guro, silid-aralan, upuan, mga aklat at iba. Sa ulat ang Kagawaran ng Edukasyon o Department of Education (DepED), ukol sa 2010 backlogs, kung pag-uusapan  ang materyales sa pag-aaral, ang mga ito ay halos nakumpleto o naihatid na noong Disyembre 2012. Ang mga backlogs sa mga guro ay napunuan na sa taong ito kung ating bibilangin ang mga na-impleyo ng lokal na pamahalaan at mga boluntaryong guro sa Kinder. Sa panig naman ng mga natayong mga silid aralan, ang DepED ay tiwala na mapupunuan na ang 66,800 backlogs sa taong ito. (Talaan 1)

Kapag pinansin ang mga istadistika ukol sa mga nagaganap na karunungan sa sa nakaraang apat na school year (SY 2008-2009 - SY 2012-2012), makikita nating mahina ang pangkalahatang katayuan na nakuha ng mga istudyante sa National Achievement Test (NAT). Ang mga mag-aaral sa Ikaanim na Baitang (Grade 6) ay nagtala sa NAT ng mababa sa 70 porsiyentong average habang ang mga mag-aaral sa pangalawang taon  sa mataas na paaralan ay mas malubha pa rito: mas mababa sa 50 porsiyento (Talaan 2)! Kapag tinignan natin ang descriptive equivalent  ng mga resultang ito, partikular sa SY 2011-2012, makikita na sa mga istuyanteng may pagkilos patungo sa kadalubhasaan ng karunungan, 44 porsyento lamang ng mga mag-aaral sa Ikaanim na Baitang ang nasa ganitong kategorya, habang may higit lamang sa 10 porsiyento sa mga mag-aaral sa sekundarya ang nasa ganitong kategorya. Bilang karagdagan, mas mababa sa 15 porsiyento ang humigit-kumulang na malapit maabot ang kadalubhasaan ng karunungan para sa Ikaanim na Baitang, habang mas mababa sa 0.05 porsiyento para sa mga mag-aaral sa ikalawang taon  sa sekundarya ang nasa ganitong katerogrya. Sa ilalim ng pagkadalubhasa, mababa ng isang porsyento ang may kadalubhasaaan para sa mga mag-aaral ng Ikaanim na Baitang, habang wala naman sa mga mag-aaral sa ikalawang taon ng sekundarya ang may kadalubhasaan (Talaan 2a).

Sa larangan naman ng Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET), ang Technical Education and  Skills Development Authority (TESDA) ay agresibong nagbibigay ng mga kinakailangang TVET programa upang mabawasan ang mga hindi pagtutugma ng trabaho sa kasanayan. Makabagong mga panukalang ang ipinatutupad na angkop upang madagdagan ang pag-eempelyo ng mga nagsipagtapos ng TVET. Noong 2012, naipahatid ang TVET sa pamamagitan ng  4,509 pampubliko at pribadong institusyon. Ang mga programang ito ay nakarehistro sa TESDA upang matiyak na makakamit ng mga trainee ang minimum na pamantayan na itinakda ng industriya sa mga tuntunin ng kurikulum, kwalipikasyon ng tagapagsanay, mga kagamitan at kasangkapan. Noong 2012, may  kabuuang 20,246 mga programa ang nairehistro sa ilalim ng Unified TVET Programs Registration and Accreditation System (UTPRAS) ng TESDA (Talaan 3). Kasama ng mga kasangga sa industriya, ang kabuuang 239 na mga Training Regulations (TRs) ay ginawa sa pamamagitan ng konsultasyon sa mga industriya at ipinalaganap sa pamamagitan ng TESDA Board (Talaan 4). Noong 2012, nagkaroon ng kabuuang 1.6 milyon na  nagtapos ng TVET at 85 porsiyento ng mga tinasa ay sertipikado (Talaan 5).  Sinisiguro ng sertipikasyon na ang mga nagtapos at mga skilled workers ay mayroong kinakailangang kakayahan upang maisagawa ang mga gawain na may pare-parehong kinakailangang pamantayan sa lugar na pinagtatrabahuhan.

Kapag isaalang-alang naman ang kinalabasan ng higher education sa mga tuntunin ng bahagdan ng pumapasa sa iba't ibang licensure examinations na pinamamahalaan ng mga Professional Regulations Commission (PRC), ipinapakita ng estadistika  ang isang fluctuating trend mula sa mababang 33.9 bahagdan na pumusa noong 2010 sa isang mataas na 42.6 bahagdan noong 2012, o may average na 37.5 bahagdan mula 2008 hanggang 2012 (Talaan 6).

Tungkulin ng Stakeholders ukol sa Programang K to 12

Bilang tugon sa programang K to 12, ang tatlong haligi ng sektor ng edukasyon, DepED, TESDA, at ang Commission on Higher Education (CHED) ay kapit bisig na nagtratrabaho upang matiyak ang maayos na pagpapatupad ng Programa. Ang 2002 Revised Basic Education Curriculum (RBEC) ng DepED ay batay sa pag-aaral ng limang learning areas: Ingles, Pilipino, Matematika, Agham, at Makabayan para sa K hanggang Grade 10. Sa kabilang banda, ang General Education Curriculum (GEC) ng CHED ay ibinagay din at muling binalangkas upang makasunod sa K to 12 na programa.

Tungkulin  naman ng TESDA ay ang pagdadalubhasa sa teknikal-bokasyonal-kabuhayan sa K to 12 Programa. Ang karagdagang dalawang taon o ang senior high school ay magbibigay ng embedmentng national certificate (NC) I at II TVET kwalipikasyon, kung saan sila ay nakasisigurong nagtataglay ng mga kinakailangang kakayahan at kagalingan na kinakailangan para sa isang partikular na trabaho kung ang nagtapos ng senior high school ay piliing pumasok sa  labor force.

Sa ilalim ng Enhance Basic Education Act, ang alalahanin ng TESDA ay may kaugnayan sa pagpapaunlad ng kurikulum, pag-eempleyo ng tagapagsanay, at career guidance. Sa kasalukuyan, nakumpleto na ng TESDA  ang pagsusuri ng mga gabay sa kurikulum, pag-aaral ng mga module, at mga gabay ng guro para sa pagtuturo sa 23 TVET kwalipikasyon o kurso sa lahat ng mga papasok na mga mag-aaral sa Ikapitong Baitang (Grade 7) at Ikawalong Baitang (Grade 8) (Talaan 7). Tutulungan din ng TESDA ang DepED sa pagsasanay nga mga gurong nagtuturo ng teknolohiya at edukasyong pangkabuhayan para sa mga sa senior high school

Paano matutugunan ng K to 12 ang hindi pagtutugma ng edukasyon at pangangailan sa trabaho?

Tulad ng anumang bansa, ang pangkalahatang trabaho sa Pilipinas ay isang katangian ng absorptive capacity ng ekonomiya, pati na rin ng kalidad at bilang ng mga nagtapos ng mga kolehiyo at pamantasan. Ang ilan sa mga walang trabaho sa ating bansa ay dahil sa pagkakaiba sa pagitan ng kalidad ng mga nagtapos sa isang dako, at pangangailangan ng industriya, sa kabilang banda. Ito ay maaaring ipinapahiwatig ng may 21 bahagdan ng mga walang trabaho sa ating bansa ay nakapagtapos ng kolehiyo, na iniulat ng National Statistics Office noong Abril 2012 at Abril 2013 Labor Force Survey (Talaan 8). Ang mga estadistikang ito ay hindi na bago.

Walang pag-aalinlangan, ang mga kasanayan na kinakailangan para sa trabaho ay higit sa tinaguriang generic competencies ng lahat ng mga kategorya ng mga mataas na antas ng lakas-tao. Bilang tugon, ang CHED ay nagtatag ng isang outcome-based na pag-aaral at typology-based ng kalidad kasiguruhang sistema. Ito ay kinakatawan sa CHED Memorandum Order (CMO) No 46, Serye ng 2012, na kung saan naglalayong matiyak na ang mga programang pang-akademikong ay makakapagdulot sa mga nagtapos ng may mataas na antas ng akademikong, pag-iisip, pag-uugali, at teknikal na kasanayan / competencies na kung saan ay may  kritikal na job productivity at kahusayan.

Ang kinalabasan ng Philippines Skills Report noong Marso 2010 ng Human Development Department, East Asia and Pacific Region ng World Bank ay nagpakita na ang kalidad at kaugnayan ng edukasyon at pagsasanay ay naging pangunahing dahilan ng umuusbong na agwat sa mga kasanayan sa labor market. Ang nirerekomenda ng 2010 Report na "ang manggagawa ay magkaroon  ng 'functional'  na mga kasanayan."

Kasama sa hanay na ito, kinikilala ng CHED ang pangangailangan para sa (1) rasyonalisasyon ng higher education at (2) pagtatatag ng mga ugnayan sa pagitan ng sistema ng higher education at mga sektor ng negosyo. Hinahangad ng CHED na  mapabuti ang kalidad at pamantayan sa pamamagitan ng pag-aalis at pagsasara ng mga substandard na programa, pagsunod sa internasyonal na mga pamantayan, pagbuo ng mga sentro ng pananaliksik at pagpapaunlad at world-class na mga unibersidad. Itinatag din ng CHED ang  isang moratoriyum sa mga bagong kolehiyo at pamantasan. Noong 2010, CMO No 32 ay naglathala ng kautusan sa isang moratoriyum sa mga oversubscribed courses upang pahupain ang pagtaas ng pagpapatala sa oversubscribed courses na nagpapalala sa hindi pagtutugma ng  trabaho at kasanayan. Gayunpaman, pagkatapos ng dalawang taon ng implementasyon nito, ang pagbawas sa pagpapatala ay maaari lamang masiyasat  para sa mga medikal at may kaugnayang kurso. Ang pagpapatala sa business administration, edukasyon, at IT ay relatibong nagpakita ng pagdami para sa AY 2011-2012 (Talaan 9). Bilang isang komplementaryong pagsuporta na ibinibigay sa mga undersubscribedat priority courses, CMO No. 04, Serye ng 2011, ay kumilala sa mga  priority courses para sa 2011-2015 na mag-aambag sa pambansang pag-unlad at tutugon sa ilang mga kritikal na kakulangan sa manpower.  At kasama rito sa mga priority courses ang Mathematics (parehong Pure at Applied Mathematics, kasama ang Statistics).

Tungkol sa samahan sa pagitan ng higher education system at mga sektor ng pagnenegosyo, ang pakikipagtulungan ay nasimulan na sa pamamagitan ng Information Technology ang Business Processing Association of the Philippines para sa pagsusulong ng pagpapaunlad ng galing  sa pamamagitan ng faculty development, student competency assessment, at pag-unlad ng service management track para sa business administration at IT curricula. Bilang karagdagan, nakapagpanday ang CHED ng pakikipagtulungan sa IBM Philippines tungo sa pagpapa-unlad ng business analytics bilang pagpapadalubhasa at ang pagsasanay ng mga miyembro ng faculty na makakatulong sa paghahatid ng mga programang ito sa akademikong taon 2013-2014.

Isa pang rekomendasyon sa 2010 Philippine Skills Report ay ang "pamamahala sa puspusang pagtatakda ng tracer studies upang masubaybayan ang mga  nagsipagtapos upang matuto nang mga aral  tungkol sa kaugnayan ng kanilang pag-aaral kung saan ang parehong nagtapos at mga employer ay kinakapanayam sa isang regular na batayan." Ang graduate tracer studies ng TESDA at CHED ay isinasagawa upang matukoy ang kaugnayan ng edukasyon sa aktwal na lugar ng trabaho at upang kilalanin ang mga career opportunities. Nagsasagawa ang TESDA ng TVET Impact Evaluation Study tuwing ika dalawang taon bilang isang paraan upang makatipon ng datos sa kinaroroonan at employability ng mga nagsipagtapos sa TESDA, mahalaga sa pagtukoy ang pag-usad ng mga programa ng gobyerno sa pamamagitan ng TESDA. Para sa CHED, ang kanilang tracer studies ay isinagawa noong 1999 at 2012. Gayunpaman, ang mga tracers ay naglalayon para sa nagkapagtapos lamang at hindi kabilang ang kanilang mga employer.

Huwag sana nating makalimutan na ang Pilipinas ay sumusunod din sa pinakamahusay na kasanayang pang-internasyonal sa pamamagitan ng paggawa ng kurikulum kaagapay sa landasin ng Philippine Qualification Framework (PQF). Executive Order No. 83 Series of 2012 o ang Institutionalization of PQF.  Ito ay nilagdaan ng Pangulong Aquino noong nakaraang Oktubre 1, 2012.

Panghuli kong mga salita: ang pagsasamahan ng pamahalaan, ang academe, at ang pribadong sektor ay mga kasangkapang makakatulong sa pagtiyak na ang populasyon ay binibigyan ng mga programa sa pag-aaral at pagsasanay na may kaugnayan sa mga pangangailangan ng labor market. Inaasahan nating lahat na ang sektor ng edukasyon ay makakabuo ng isang well-equipped/skilled workforce na tutugon sa mga pangangailangan sa mapagkumpitensyang labor market.




1 Assistant Secretary for Planning and Development of the Department of Education; Assistant Secretary Mateo is also the Chairman of the Interagency Committee on Education Statistics (IACES)of the NSCB, Ms. Maria Susan P. Dela Rama is the Executive Director for Planning Office of the Technical Education and Skills Authority and Director Maria Teresita M. Semana of the Policy Planning, Research and Information of the Commission on Higher Education, both Co-chairs of the IACES. The authors thank NSCB Secretary General Jose Ramon Albert, Director Candido J. Astrologo, Jr., Director Jessamyn O. Encarnacion, Ms. Estrella R. Turingan, Ms. Carmelita H. Destreza, Mr. Gerald Junne L. Clariño, Mr. Noel S.  Nepomuceno, Mr. Edwin U. Aragon,  and Ms. Simonette A. Nisperos of the NSCB in the preparation of the article, as well as Ms. Virginia M. Bathan for the Filipino translation

2 Signed by President Aquino on 15 May 2013, the law covers the mandatory kindergarten among five-year-olds and 12 years of basic education – six years of primary education (Grade 1-6), four years of junior high school (Grades 7-10), and two years of senior high school (Grades 11-12), to further groom the skills and talents of students for their chosen career path before the entering into tertiary education.

3 A mean percentage score (MPS) of 96-100 percent is considered mastered, closely approximating mastery for 86-95 percent, moving towards mastery for 66-85 percent, average for 35-65 percent, low for 15-34 percent, very low for 5-14 percent, and absolutely no mastery for 0-4 percent.

4 The training regulations serve as the basis in the development of curriculum, instructional materials, competency assessment tools as well as in program registration and certification arrangements.

5 Tracer studies aims to find out the most desirable skills for particular industries, fields of education in decreased demand, and identify where HEIs can benefit from this information and incorporate this information into their curricula.

6 The law describes the levels of educational qualifications and sets of standards for qualifications outcomes; that is, competency-based, labor market-driven, and assessment-based qualification recognition.



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Updated 28 January 2016

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