StatFocus

 

"As in most developing countries, the Philippines remain predominantly agricultural in spite of the declining share of the sector to the country's national income.

 

The declining agricultural productivity, continuing increase in the prices of staple foods and global climate change caused concern for food security for the growing population in the country "

 

StatFocus

The Role of Agricultural Statistics in Strengthening Food Security
in the Philippines

by Dir. Romeo R. Recide 1                                                         Filipino Version


The Role of Agricultural Statistics in Strengthening Food Security in the PhilippinesFood security has become a pressing issue and an essential concept in the agricultural statistical system. The importance of food security is supported by the Universal Declaration on the Eradication of Hunger and Malnutrition (1974) and Article 11 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966) which highlights “the right of everyone to an adequate standard of living for himself and his family, including adequate food, clothing and housing, and to the continuous improvement of living conditions.”

But, what is food security? In the 1996 World Food Summit, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) stated that food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food which meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. The FAO identified four dimensions which affect food security, namely: food availability, food access, utilization, and stability. Food availability refers to the availability of sufficient quantities of food of appropriate quality, supplied through domestic production or imports. Food access is the access by individuals to adequate resources for acquiring appropriate foods for a nutritious diet. The third dimension is the utilization of food through adequate diet, clean water, sanitation and health care to reach a state of nutritional well-being where all physiological needs are met. The last dimension is stability which denotes having access to adequate food at all times. Access to food should not be lost as a consequence of sudden shocks or cyclical events.2

As in most developing countries, the Philippines remain predominantly agricultural in spite of the declining share of the sector to the country’s national income (Table 1). The declining agricultural productivity, continuing increase in the prices of staple foods and global climate change caused concern for food security for the growing population in the country.3 The rice crisis of 1995 and the food crisis in 2008 bear witness to the necessity of food security policy formulation. However, this is not an easy task. The process encompasses many interrelated areas and requires resolution of policy issues that are often in conflict with each other. Since most of the conflicting policy issues are anchored on solid grounds, policymakers would require strong bases such as comprehensive statistics and quality and timely agricultural data in deciding which option to take. This makes the statistical system an indispensable partner in maintaining food security.4

The Bureau of Agricultural Statistics (BAS) is mandated to collect, compile, and release official agricultural statistics. In the pursuit of its mandated tasks, it provides most of the statistics and indicators that are used to describe the status of food security in the country and aids in investment, marketing and policy decisions that have a direct impact on food security.5 These statistics and indicators come in the form of web-based information system, commodity situation and outlook.

As far back as 1990, with some assistance from the FAO, the BAS implemented and have maintained through the years, the development and maintenance of Agricultural Indicators System (AIS). It consists of 13 sections or modules, two of which are related to food security: Food consumption and Nutrition and Food Self-sufficiency and Security. The indicators include the following, which may be used to support data requirements to monitor and evaluate programs and policies on food security, among others:

  • Per capita index of food production

  • Per capita supply of calories

  • Import dependency ratio

  • Stocks of rice and corn

The BAS also spearheaded the establishment of the Philippine Food Security Information System (PhilFSIS), in support of the Agrikulturang Pilipino (Agri-Pinoy), the overall strategic framework of various Department of Agriculture (DA) services and programs from 2011-2016.6  Patterned after the ASEAN Food Security Information System (AFSIS), PhilFSIS is a Philippine initiative to create a one-stop shop containing relevant, timely, comprehensive, user-friendly, and accessible data affecting food security. It is a web-based information system that aims to enhance food security planning, implementation and evaluation through improved organization, analysis and dissemination of relevant information.7 This information system will be launched this October 2013 at the BAS website www.bas.gov.ph Among the basic statistics that policy and planning for food security require from the statistical system are production, trade, prices, uses, and food consumption. In addition to these, the policy and planning group should also have data on supply chain or distribution system, costs and returns of production, marketing costs and margins, household income and expenditure, and nutrient intake.8

Though still being developed, it is envisioned that PhilFSIS will be able to provide policy and decision makers with necessary data in coming up with viable judgements. PhilFSIS is targeted to be in full operation by June 2014.

Status of Food Security in the Philippines:

Among the statistics and indicators that can describe the food security status of a country are those relating to production, stocks, trade, consumption and population. The Supply and Utilization Accounts (SUA), compiled by the BAS, puts together the basic statistics that can help in situating the food security status of the Philippines. The SUA allows the derivation of relevant food security indicators such as net food disposable, self-sufficiency and import dependency ratios.  The following is a summary table for selected food commodities:

Table 1. Gross Domestic Product by Industrial Origin: Percent distribution
1946-2012
AT CONSTANT 2000 PRICES

Industry 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955
1. Agriculture, Hunting, Forestry and Fishing 29.7 27.8 24.9 25 24.9 24.3 23.8 23.9 24.8 23.6
2. Industry Sector 22.6 28.1 33 30.6 30.5 31.9 30.3 31 29.9 30.4
3. Service Sector 47.7 44.1 42 44.4 44.6 43.8 45.9 45 45.3 46
Gross Domestic Product 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0


Industry 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965
1. Agriculture, Hunting, Forestry and Fishing 22.3 21.7 21.9 21.8 21.3 21.5 21.5 21.5 20.8 21.2
2. Industry Sector 32.5 33 32.9 33.4 32.7 32.7 32.4 33.2 33.5 33.6
3. Service Sector 45.2 45.3 45.2 44.9 46 45.8 46.1 45.3 45.8 45.2
Gross Domestic Product 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0


Industry 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975
1. Agriculture, Hunting, Forestry and Fishing 21.1 20.5 20.8 20.6 19.9 19.6 19.6 19.4 18 17.3
2. Industry Sector 33.8 34.6 34.5 34.5 35 35.6 36.2 37.6 38.5 39.5
3. Service Sector 45.1 44.9 44.7 44.9 45.1 44.8 44.2 43 43.5 43.3
Gross Domestic Product 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0


Industry 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985
1. Agriculture, Hunting, Forestry and Fishing 17.5 17.3 17 16.6 16.4 16.4 15.9 15 16.1 17.1
2. Industry Sector 40.4 41 41.1 41.7 41.6 42.1 41.5 41.1 39.4 35.9
3. Service Sector 42.2 41.7 41.9 41.7 42 41.5 42.6 43.9 44.5 47
Gross Domestic Product 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0


Industry 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995
1. Agriculture, Hunting, Forestry and Fishing 17.1 16.9 16.3 15.8 15.4 15.7 15.7 15.7 15.4 14.8
2. Industry Sector 35.5 35.3 35.9 36.2 35.9 35.2 34.9 34.7 35.1 35.7
3. Service Sector 47.4 47.7 47.8 48 48.7 49.1 49.5 49.6 49.5 49.5
Gross Domestic Product 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0


Industry 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
1. Agriculture, Hunting, Forestry and Fishing 14.5 14.2 13.3 14.1 14 14 14 14 13.6 13.3
2. Industry Sector 35.8 36.1 35.3 33.8 34.5 33.8 33.6 33.3 32.9 32.7
3. Service Sector 49.7 49.7 51.4 52.1 51.6 52.1 52.4 52.7 53.5 54
Gross Domestic Product 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0


Industry 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
1. Agriculture, Hunting, Forestry and Fishing 13.1 12.9 12.8 12.5 11.6 11.5 11.1
2. Industry Sector 32.5 32.2 32.4 31.5 32.6 32.0 32.0
3. Service Sector 54.4 54.9 54.8 56 55.8 56.5 56.9
Gross Domestic Product 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

 

Table 2. Self-Sufficiency Ratio of Selected Food Commodities, Philippines
2005-2011

Commodity 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Rice 83.96 85.38 85.47 81.90 85.83 81.27 93.91
Corn 98.67 95.21 97.79 99.70 95.88 98.64 99.06
Sugarcane 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
Cassava 100.03 99.85 100.05 100.04 100.05 98.89 99.76
Pork 97.83 97.78 96.87 95.08 94.91 - -
Chicken 96.50 95.2 95.55 95.25 93.56 90.38 90.00
Milkfish 100.21 100.35 100.43 100.47 100.67 100.83 100.88

Self-sufficiency ratio=Production/Production + Exports-Imports*(100)

Note: ratios closer to or over 100.00 indicate the country’s capability to produce its own requirements and generate export earnings

Table 3. Growth Rate in Production, Selected Food Commodities, Philippines
2005-2011

Commodity 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Rice 5.0 6.0 3.5 -3.3 -3.0 5.8
Corn 15.8 10.8 2.8 1.5 -9.3 9.3
Sugarcane 6.2 -8.7 19.6 -13.8 -21.8 58.3
Cassava 4.7 6.5 3.8 5.3 2.8 5.2
Pork 10.6 3.3 -0.7 1.4 - -
Chicken 5.5 13.3 9.0 1.8 5.1 5.9
Milkfish 10.0 10.5 0.7 0.70 0.3 5.7


Based on the Table 2 on Self-Sufficiency Ratio, the country is self-sufficient in sugarcane and milkfish from 2006 to 2011. We have also achieved self-sufficiency in cassava in some years. The country is still not self-sufficient in rice, the staple food commodity of Filipinos, as well as other basic food commodities such as pork and chicken. The country, though, is nearing self-sufficiency in corn.

Other Statistical Indicator Systems that Monitor Food Security

The Statistical Indicators on Philippine Development (StatDev) http://nswebserver/stats/statdev/default.asp is an indicator system compiled and maintained by the National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB) to monitor the progress and achievement of the economic and social goals set forth in the Philippine Development Plan (PDP). It provides a comparison of the actual attainment vis-à-vis the targets indicated in the Plan. 

Improvement of food security in the country is one of the most important outcome identified in the latest PDP Plan 2010-2016 under the Agriculture and Fishery sector. Critical indicators http://nswebserver/stats/statdev/2012/ ch3_agriculture.asp to monitor this goal include Subsistence Incidence Among Population; Ratio of Rice Self-Sufficiency, and Inflation Rate for Food, among others.

Requirements in Agricultural Statistics

Agriculture statistics that are needed in monitoring food security should be available at the desired level of disaggregation. In most instances, to serve the country requirements, the need is at the regional and provincial levels, apart from the national levels. Food security related statistics of other countries also prove to be useful, for benchmarking and international comparability.

Table 4. Food Security  Indicator Prevalence
of Food Inadequacy (in Percent)

Southeast Asia 2005-2012

Country 2005-07 2006-08 2007-09 2008-10 2009-11 2010-12
Brunei Darussalam < 5.0 < 5.0 < 5.0 < 5.0 < 5.0 < 5.0
Cambodia 34.0 32.5 32.0 31.0 29.3 27.1
Indonesia 24.6 23.2 21.7 19.7 17.8 15.8
Lao People's Democratic Republic 41.9 40.9 39.1 38.3 38.0 38.3
Malaysia 7.1 7.0 6.8 7.1 7.1 6.9
Myanmar 34.6 33.4 32.9 31.7 31.0 29.5
Philippines 25.5 23.5 22.5 22.7 23.4 23.8
Thailand 18.8 19.0 19.1 18.5 16.6 15.5
Timor Leste 37.9 39.0 38.6 37.7 42.1 46.1

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)

For instance, the prevalence of Food Inadequacy is an example of an indicator aimed at capturing an outcome of food insecurity due to inadequate food access.  Table 4 shows this indicator across Southeast Asian countries from 2005-2012. The lower the percentage of food inadequacy, the better it is for the country. The figures indicate that the Philippines ranks midway compared to its Southeast Asian neighbors.  Brunei Darussalam has the least prevalence of food inadequacy, followed by Malaysia, and Thailand. Timor Leste has the highest prevalence of food inadequacy, followed by Lao People’s Democratic, and Myanmar. These statistics tell us a story and provide us challenges in shaping a better future for our country.

 

Reactions and views are welcome thru email to the authors at jrg.albert@nscb.gov.ph or rsrecide@gmail.com.

 

 

Filipino Version

 

Ang Tungkulin ng Pang-agrikultural na  Estadistika sa Pagpapalakas ng Seguridad sa Pagkain ng Pilipinas

by Dir. Romeo R. Recide 1   

Naging kagyat na isyu at isang  mahalagang konsepto ang seguridad sa pagkain sa sistema ng pang-agrikulturang estadistika. Ang kahalagahan ng seguridad sa pagkain ay suportado ng Universal Declaration on the Eradication of Hunger and Malnutrition (1974) at ng Article 11 ng International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966) na nagtatampok sa "karapatan ng lahat ng tao sa isang sapat na pamantayan ng buhay para sa kanyang sarili at sa kanyang pamilya, kasama ang sapat na pagkain, pananamit, at pabahay, at sa tuluy-tuloy na pagpapabuti ng mga kundisyon sa pamumuhay."

Subalit, ano nga ba ang seguridad sa pagkain (o food security)? Noong 1996  World Food Summit, binanggit ng Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) na ang seguridad sa pagkain ay umiiral kapag ang lahat ng tao, sa lahat ng pagkakataon, ay mayroong pisikal at pang-ekonomiyang mapagkukunan ng sapat, ligtas at masustansiyang pagkain na tutugon sa kanilang mga kailangan at piling pagkain para sa isang aktibo at malusog na buhay. Kinilala ng FAO na may apat na dimension na nakakaapekto sa seguridad ng pagkain at ito ay ang sumusunod: makukuhang pagkain (food availability), pagkukunan ng pagkain (food access), paggamit (utilization), at katatagan (stability). Ang ibig sabihin ng makukuhang pagkain (food availability) ay makukuhang sapat na dami ng pagkain na may tamang kalidad na nagmumula sa local na produksyon o inangkat mula sa ibang bansa.   Pagkukunan ng pagkain (Food access) ay ang pinagkukuhanan ng mga indibidwal ng sapat na kapamaraanan ng pagkuha ng naaangkop na pagkain para sa isang masustansyang diyeta (diet). Ang ikatlong dimensyon ay ang paggamit (utilization) ng pagkain sa pamamagitan ng sapat na diyeta, malinis na tubig, kalinisan at pangangalaga ng kalusugan upang maabot ang isang estado ng nutritional na kagalingan kung saan ang lahat ng mga physiological na mga pangangailangan ay matugunan. Ang huling dimensyon ay ang katatagan kung saan nagpapahiwatig ng pagkakaroon ng pagkukunan ng sapat na pagkain sa lahat ng oras. Ang pagkukunan ng pagkain (food access) ay hindi dapat mawala bunga ng mga biglaaang kapahamakan o paulit-ulit na pangyayari.2

Tulad sa karamihan ng mga umuunlad na bansa, ang Pilipinas ay nananatiling may malaking bahaging agrikultural sa kabila ng pababa ng bahagi ng sektor sa pambansang kita ng bansa (Table 1). Ang pagbaba ng pagiging produktibo ng agrikultura, patuloy na pagtaas ng mga presyo ng mga pangunahing pagkain at pandaigdigang pagbabago ng klima na naging dahilan ng pag-alala para sa seguridad sa pagkain para sa lumulobong populasyon sa bansa.3  Ang krisis sa bigas noong 1995 at ang krisis sa pagkain noong 2008 ay nagpapatunay na kailangan magbalangkas ng patakaran sa seguridad sa pagkain.  Gayunpaman, hindi ito madaling gawain. Ang proseso ay sumasaklaw ng magkakaugnay na aralin at nangangailangan ng paglutas ng mga isyung pampatakaran na magkakasalungat.  At dahil nga nakaugat ang mga magkakasalungat na isyung pampatakaran sa matibay na pundasyon, nangangailangan ang mga policymakers ng mga matibay na batayan tulad ng mga komprehensibong estadistika at dekalidad at napapanahong datos pang-agrikultura para makapamili ng wastong desisyon.  Ang ganitong kaayusan ang nagbibigay saysay sa sistema ng estadistika bilang isang kailangang-kailangan kaagapay sa pagpapanatili ng seguridad sa pagkain.4

Ang Bureau of Agricultural Statistics (BAS) ang ahensya ng pamahalaan sa Pilipinas na may awtoridad na mangalap, maglikom at maglathala ng mga opisyal na estadistikang pang agrikultura.  Sa pagtugon sa mandatong ito, nagbibigay ang BAS ng mga estadistika at indicators na ginagamit sa pagpalalarawan ng kalagayan sa seguridad sa pagkain sa bansa at tulong sa investment, pamilhan at mga desisyon pampatakaran na may direcktang impact sa seguridad sa pagkain.5  Ang mga estadistika at indicator ay galing sa anyo ng web-based na sistemang ng impormasyon, commodity situation at palagay.

Mula pa man noong 1990 hanggang sa kasalukuyan, isinakatuparan at napanatili ng BAS, sa tulong ng FAO, ang pagpapaunlad at pagmantini ng Agricultural Indictors System (AIS).  Ang AIS ay mayroong 13 na seksyon o module at dalawa (2) dito ay may kaugnayan sa seguridad sa pagkain:  Pagkonsumo sa pagkain at nutrisyon at sapat sa sariling pagkain at seguridad.  Ang mga indicators na pwedeng gamitin bilang suporta sa mga pangangailangan para sa pagmonitor and paglagom ng mga programa at mga patakaran sa seguridad sa pagkain ay ay kinabibilangan ng mga sumusunod:

  • Per capita index ng produksyon ng pagkain

  • Per capita suplay ng calories

  • Import dependency ratio

  • Mga imbak ng palay at mais

Pinangunahan ng BAS ang pagtatayo ng Philippine Food Security Information System (PHILFSIS), para suportahan ang Agrikulturang Pilipino (Agri-Pinoy), ang pangkalahatang balangkas ng iba’t ibang serbisyo’t programa ng Kagawaran ng Pagsasaka mula 2011 – 2016.6  Ang PhilFSIS, na ang ginawang huwaran ay ang ASEAN Food Security Information System (AFSIS), ay isang inisyatiba ng Pilipinas para makalikha ng isang one stop shop website na naglalaman ng mga makahulugan, napapanahon, komprehensibo, user-friendly at madaling makuhang datos na nakakapekto sa seguridad sa pagkain.  Ito ay isang web-based na sistema ng impormasyon na may hangaring payabungin pagplaplano ng seguridad sa pagkain, pagpapatupad at paglalagom sa pamamagitan ng pinaunlad na organisasyon, pagsusuri at pagsisiwalat ng makabuluhang impormasyon.7  Makikita ito sa web-page ng BAS www.bas.gov.ph simula sa Oktubre 2013. Kasama sa mga batayang estadistikang kailangan sa paggawa ng mga patakaran at plano para sa seguridad sa pagkain ay produksyon, kalakalan, presyo, mga gamit and konsumo ng pagkain.  Dagdag pa, ang grupong gumagawa ng mga patakaran at plano ay meron ding dapat datos tungkol sa supply chain o sistema ng pamamahagi, cost and returns of production, marketing costs and margins, kita at gastusin ng sambahayan, at nutrient intake.8

Kahit na nasa yugto pa lamang pagpapaulad, hangad ng PhilFSIS na makapagbibigay sa mga policy and decision makers ng kinakailangang datos para makagawa ng mga wastong desisyon.  Target na matapos ang PhilFSIS sa Hunyo 2014.

Ang Katayuan ng Seguridad sa Pagkain sa Pilipinas

Kasama sa mga estadistika at mga indicators na naglalarawan ng katayuan ng seguridad sa pagkain ng bansa yaong mga may kaugnayan sa produksyon, imbak, kalakalan, konsumo at populasyon.  Ang Supply and Utilization Accounts (SUA) na nilikom ng BAS ay nagsasamasama ng mga batayan estadistika na makakatulong sa pagtanya ng kalagayan ng seguridad sa pagkain ng Pilipinas. Mahahalaw sa SUA ang mga makabuluhang indicator sa seguridad sa pagkain tulad ng net food disposable, self sufficiency at import dependency ratio.  Ang mga sumusunod na mga Table ay naglalarawan sa ilang piling pagkain.

Batay sa Table 2 on Self-Sufficiency Ratio, ang Pilipinas ay self-sufficient sa tubo at bangus mula 2006 hanggang 2011.  Nakamtan din natin ang self sufficiency sa kamoteng kahoy sa ilang mga taon.  Hindi pa self-sufficient ang bansa sa bigas, ang staple food commodity ng mga Pilipino, at ganundin sa iba pang batayang pagkain tulad ng karneng baboy at manok.  Ganunpaman, malapit ng maging self sufficient ang bansa sa mais.

Iba pang Statistical Indicator System na Sumusubaybay sa Seguridad sa Pagakin

Ang mga indicator pang estadistika ng Philippine Develoment (StatDev), http://www.nscb.gov.ph/stats/statdev/default.asp, ay isang systemang ng mga indicator na nilikom at minantini ng NSCB para masubaybayan ang pag unlad at mga tagumpay ng mga nailatalag na layuning pang ekonomiya at sosyal ng Philippine Development Plan (PDP).  Nagbibigay ito ng paghahambing sa mga aktwal na mga nakamit kumpara sa mga target na nakalagay sa PDP.

Ang pagpapaunlad ng seguridad sa pagkain ng bansa ay isa sa mga mahahalagang tunguhin kinilala sa pinakahuling PDP plan 2010 – 2016 ng sektor ng Agrikultuira at Pangingisda. Kasama sa mga kritikal na indicator, http://www.nscb.gov.ph/stats/statdev/2012/ch3_agriculture.asp, na susubabay sa hangaring ito ay Subsistence Incidence among population, Ratio of Rice Self-sufficiency, at tantos ng implasyon para sa pagkain.

Mga Kinakailangan sa Estadistikang Pang Agrikultura

Ang mga estadistikang pang agrikultura na kailangan para subaybayan ang seguridad sa pagkain ay dapat matagpuan wastong antas ng disaggregation.  Sa mas nakararaming pagkakataonon, para magsilbi sa pangangailangan ng bansa, mas mainam kung ito’y nasa pang rehiyon at pamprobinsyang antas bukod siyempre sa antas pambansa.  Ang mga estadistikang may kaugnayan sa seguridad sa pagkain ng ibang bansa ay maaring gamitin para sa benchmarking at pandaigdigan paghahambing.

Ang malaganap na kakulangan sa pagkain ay isang halimbawa ng isang indicator na tumutukoy sa tunguhin ng seguridad sa pagkain dahil kakulangan sa pagkukunan ng pagkain (food access).  Pinakikita ng Table 4 ang paghahambing sa mga bansa ng Timog Silangang Asya mula 2005- 2012.  Ang mababang porsyentahe ng kakulangan sa pagakin ay mas mabuti para sa bansa.

Pinakikita ng mga nakalap na datos mula FAO na ang Pilipinas ay nasa gitna sa 9 na bansa sa Timog Silangan sa indicator na ito.  Pinakaganda ang resulta ng Brunei Darussalam na mababa sa 5.0 porsytento sa nabanggit na panahon.  Sinusundan ito ng Malaysia, at Thailand.

Ang Timor Leste ay may pinakamababang pwesto na ang ibig sabihin ay ang pinakahigit na kakulangan sa pag-access sa pagkain.  Sinusundan ito ng Lao People’s Demoncratic Republic, at Myanmar. Lahat ng mga istadistikang ito ay nagpapahiwatig ng kuwento at nagbibigay pagkakataon para mapabuti natin ang hinaharap ng ating bansa. 

 

 

__________________

1 Director of the Bureau of Agricultural Statistics; Director Recide is the Chairman of the Inter Agency Committee on Agriculture and Fishery Statistics of the NSCB. The author thanks NSCB Secretary General Jose Ramon Albert, OIC- Assistant Director Ratelieta T. Millendez and Ms. Haidee Orellana of BAS, Dir. Raymundo J. Talento, Ms. Maria Fe Talento, Mai Lin Villaruel and Noel Nepomuceno of the NSCB, AASID staff of BAS and Simonette Nisperos of NSIC in the preparation of the article, as well as Mr. Edward Lopez Dee  and Ms. Virginia Bathan for the Filipino translation

2 Food and Agriculture Organization.“Food Security.”Policy Briefs. (June 2006). Web. 9 July 2013.  

3 Philippines. Bureau of Agricultural Statistics.Establishment of the Food Security Information System in the Philippines.Quezon City. Bureau of Agricultural Statistics, 2012.

4 Philippines. Bureau of Agricultural Statistics.Establishment of the Food Security Information System in the Philippines.Quezon City, Bureau of Agricultural Statistics, 2012. Print

5 Recide, Romeo S. “Philippine Food Security Cooperation.” November 2011

6 Department of Agriculture.“Agri-Pinoy.”Web. 9 July 2013.

7 Philippines. Bureau of Agricultural Statistics.Establishment of the Food Security Information System in the Philippines.Quezon City. Bureau of Agricultural Statistics, 2012.

8 Lizarondo, Maura S. “Food Security Information System in the Philippines.” November 2010.

 

References:

  1. Recide, R.S., "Philippine Food Security Cooperation". Paper presented in the 3rd Roundtable Meeting on ASEAN Plus Three Food Security Cooperation Strategy, Nanning, Guangxi, 9-10 November 2011.

  2. Lizarondo, M.S., "Food Security Information System in the Philippines". Paper presented in a roundtable forum on Achieving Greater Food Security in Asia though Improved Information Network, held at SEARCA, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines on 17-18 November 2010.

 

 


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