Headlines Statistically Speaking

Dagiti Ilocano ngata ti kalaingan nga agurnong?ok
(Are our biggest “savers” the Ilocanos?)

by Dr. Romulo A. Virola1

Dagita Ilocano ngata ti kalaingan nga agurnong? This month, the country is celebrating our National Nutrition Month, spearheaded by the National Nutrition Council.  The theme of this year’s celebration is “Pagkain ng gulay ugaliin, araw-araw itong ihain!"  One of its objectives is the promotion of a healthy diet among Filipinos. Health is wealth, sabi nga.  But surely you would agree that health is not limited to one’s physical health. For example, many of us are concerned about the “health status” of our income, expenditure, and savings. Kasi, pag may isinuksok, may madudukot, di ba?

Last May 2012, the National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB) reported 2 on  the state of the Philippine economy. Among the four institutional sectors3, the average shares of savings for 2009 to 2011 are 58.2 percent for non-financial corporations, 19.2 percent for financial corporations, 7.3 percent for general government, and 15.3 percent for households including non-profit institutions.     1

Because of the overarching worldwide concern for poverty alleviation, in national accounting, an improved articulation of the household sector has been getting priority attention. In line with this, Statistically Speaking  for July focuses on the household sector4, which  had a share of 12.5 percent, 18.8 percent, and 14.1 percent of the total savings of the country in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively.  We will try to identify the biggest savers of the country.  Across regions.  Across some sectors.    And how much  they save in a year.  May basehan ba ang ating perception na ang mga kababayan nating mga Ilocano ay mga kuripot, este matitipid? 

The Family Income and Expenditures Survey (FIES) is the country’s source of official data on income, expenditure, and savings.  It is conducted by our National Statistics Office (NSO) triennially5, which is one reason why the latest official poverty statistics are for 2009.  This year is an “FIES year” – meaning, the survey will be conducted in July 2012 and January of 2013 with 2012 as the reference year (questions will be asked on income and expenditures for 2012).

Bueno, sino nga ba sa atin ang sa pagdating ng pangangailangan ay may madudukot? Let us take a look at the FIES information on income, expenditures, and savings  for the years 2003, 2006, and 2009.

Across all families in the country…

In current prices, the total income of all families in the country was PhP 2.4 trillion in 2003, PhP 3.0 trillion in 2006, and PhP 3.8 trillion in 2009.  On the other hand, total expenditures of all families totaled to PhP 2.0 trillion in 2003, PhP 2.6 trillion in 2006, and PhP 3.2 trillion in 2009. (Table 1)

Between 2003 and 2009, the share of total savings to total2 income of all families went down – from 16.4 percent in 2003 down to 14.8 percent and 14.9 percent in 2006 and 2009, respectively.  Or, for every one hundred pesos of income, on the average, about 15 to 16 pesos go to savings. Now, now, now….please do not ask us where on earth   the 15 pesos went! Just remember, income is not evenly or equitably  distributed across all families in the country. Therefore, many of us either do not have savings or have been able to save less than 15 percent of our income; while the Sys, the Tans, the Razons, the Gokongweis, and the Consunjis6. have savings  in the billions of pesos.    Is it because they never forgot kung paanong mamaluktot habang maikli ang kumot? Unlikely, but whatever happened to Brandy Ayala? (Table 1)

Taking out the effect of increase in prices over time, real per capita annual savings also went down – from PhP 5,261 in 2003 down to PhP 4,667 in 2006 and PhP 4,957 in 2009. (Table 3)

 

“Savers” and “non-savers”…3

Two out of  every three Filipino families were able to save (those with  income higher than expenditure) in 2003 (65.5 percent), 2006 (65.1 percent), and 2009 (65.9 percent).  (Table 4)

 

4

The Pinoy “savers” saved on the average, 23 to 25 pesos out of every PhP 100 that they earned.  Sila ang mga tunay na wais! (Table 5)

 

 

These “savers” reported an average annual p5er capita savings of PhP 10,693 in 2003, PhP 11,982 in 2006, and PhP 14,298 in 2009. If we note that the official annual per capita food threshold was PhP 7,577 in 2003, PhP 9,257 in 2006, and PhP 11,686 in 2009 – this would mean that the “savers” have the capacity to  take (or “save”) at least one person out  of food poverty. But then, this could promote mendicant mentality, which is probably not the way to solve poverty. (Table 5)

 

 

Among the “non-savers,” their income deficit is, on 6the average, 14-15 percent of their income between 2003 and 2009… Or for every PhP 100 that they earn, they are spending PhP 114-115.  Saan na nila kukunin ang kulang?  No wonder there is a proliferation of credit card agents in malls, supermarkets, and gasoline stations! Let us just hope our kababayans will realize that borrowing from “5-6” operators can only sink us deeper into poverty. Could addressing this age-old problem have been a better way of using the $1 billion we loaned to IMF? (Table 6)

How  do the “savers” differ from the “non-savers” in terms of their spending pattern? 

7

The biggest disparity between the “savers” and “non-savers” in terms of their spending pattern is on their food expenditure with the latter spending about 4 to 5 percent more on food.  This is similar to past findings from poverty analysis that the poor spend proportionately more on food than the nonpoor. In terms of poverty intervention programs, malaki siguro maitutulong if we focus or at least provide sufficient attention on food security/availability/accessibility/affordability?  (Table 7

8

It is very sad to note that expenditure on education is one of the items being “sacrificed” by the non-savers. If this is an indication of the government subsidy to education, very good! But as we have written about many times in the past, enrolment rates in primary and especially secondary education have been very low in our country in the recent past. This could  mean that many of our kababayans could no longer afford to send our children to school, or that higher education is no longer the priority that it used to be among Pinoy families! (Table 7

9

However, it bothers us to note that “non-savers” also spend relatively more on alcoholic beverages and tobacco than the “savers.”  Di ba dapat, pag kulang na ang kinikita,  una dapat tinatanggal ang bisyo?   But many years ago, we were lambasted by ‘critics” when, in improving the poverty assessment methodology we excluded alcoholic beverages and tobacco from the list of basic needs! Wala na daw bang karapatan ang mga mahihirap manigarilyo at uminom ng beer? (Table 7

 

“Savers” at the regional level…

10

Among the “savers” in 2009 in the regions, surprisingly, Region I (the Ilocanos) did not have the highest savings ratio 7; it was CAR (0.23), Region II (0.21), and Region VII (0.20) which were home to the biggest savers.  It may not surprise us that during the same year, these three regions were not among the poorest regions of the country.  In terms of poverty incidence among families, CAR is ranked 5th least poor; Region II is the 4th least poor; and Region VII is the 11th least poor (or 7th poorest). (Table 8

The lowest savings ratios among “savers” in 2009 were observed in Region VI (0.12), Region V (0.14), and NCR (0.15).  (Table 8

 

“Non-Savers” at the regional level…

Among the “non-savers” in the regions, the highest deficit ratios in 2009 were observed in CAR (0.21), Region XII (0.18), and Region II (0.17).  (Table 9)

11

CAR and Region II appear to exhibit extreme behavior …they are home to families who are the highest savers as well as the most  lavish spenders! (Table 9)

 

 

Between the male- and female-headed households, who spends more wisely? 

12

Between 2003 and 2009, savings ratio of “savers” among female-headed households was consistently higher than the “savers” of male-headed households.  Talagang mas wais si LumenSavings ratios of the former were 0.20, 0.18, and 0.18 in 2003, 2006, and 2009, respectively.  On the other hand, savings ratios of the latter were lower at 0.18, 0.18, and 0.17 in 2003, 2006, and 2009, respectively.  (Table 10)

Female-headed households who are “savers” spend relatively less on food, non-durable furnishing, clothing and footwear compared to the male-headed households.  (Table 11a)

Male-headed households who are “savers” spend relatively less on recreation, special family occasion, gifts and contribution. Kaya siguro malakas ang unrecorded/unorganized business ng mga spa at ballroom dancing, at maraming nanonood ng Walang Hanggan o kaya Lie to Me!   (Table 11a)

13

Among “non-savers”, income deficit of female-headed households is consistently lower than the deficit of male-headed households.   For every PhP 100 that the former earned, they would  need an additional PhP 14, on the average, to cover their expenditures.  This is  lower than the deficit of the male-headed households who would need an additional PhP 16 on the average.  (Table 10)

Female-headed households who are “non-savers” spend relatively more on personal care and effects compared to their male counterpart.   Belo and Ellen’s might be happy to know this!  (Table 11b)

On the other hand, male-headed households who are “non-savers” spend relatively more on alcoholic beverages, tobacco,  and durable furnishingKaya dapat lang siguro iintrega ni Mister ang sahod kay Misis?  (Table 11b)

 

What about the savings patterns of households whose heads are single compared to those whose heads are married?

 

14

The savings ratios of “savers” among households whose head is single are practically the same as those of “savers” with married household head.  (Table 12)

 

 

 

15

However, the savings rate of single-headed households has gone down from 0.19 in 2003, to 0.16 in 2009 while the savings rate  of married-headed households has been steady at about 0.17 to 0.18.  (Table 12)

 

 

 

Households who are “savers” and whose head is single spend relatively less on food, fuel, light, and water, education, non-durable furnishing, house maintenance and repair compared to their married counterpart.  (Table 13a)

Households who are “savers” and whose head is married spend relatively less on non-basic expenditures such as recreation, alcoholic beverage, gifts and contribution compared to their single counterpart. (Table 13a)

Among “non-savers”, income deficit of households whose head is single is consistently lower than the deficit of their married counterpart.   For every PhP 100 that the former earned, they would need an additional PhP 15 on the average to cover their expenditures; this is  lower than the average deficit  of PhP 16 of the married-headed households. No wonder then that there are fewer marriages now? Magastos ang mag-asawa? (Table 12)

Single-headed households who are “non-savers” spend relatively more on recreation and alcoholic beverage compared to married-headed households.  (Table 13b)

Married-headed households who are “non-savers” spend relatively more on durable furnishing.  (Table 13b)

Clearly, the challenge for those of us not on the Forbes List is how to spend our money more wisely… less on non-basic expenditures so that we will have more for essentials, like education and health.  At dahil tag-ulan na, sana we were able to “save for the rainy days!” And we hope the 2012 FIES income-expenditure patterns will be healthier. 


Happy Nutrition Month!

 

Reactions and views are welcome thru email to the author at ravirola@yahoo.com

________________________________

1Invited author and former Secretary General of the National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB). He holds a Ph. D. in Statistics from the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, U.S.A. and taught mathematics and statistics at the University of the Philippines. He is also a past president of the Philippine Statistical Association. This article was co-written by Ms. Jessamyn O. Encarnacion and Ms. Mechelle M. Viernes, Director and Statistical Coordination Officer III, respectively, of the NSCB. The authors thank Noel S. Nepomuceno, Candido J. Astrologo, Jr., and Ma. Libertie V. Masculino, for the assistance in the preparation of the article. The views expressed in the article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the NSCB.

2 National Statistical Coordination Board.  National Accounts of the Philippines CY 2009 to CY 2011 with Consolidated Accounts, Income and Outlay Accounts. Makati City, Philippines.  31 May 2012.  (http://www.nscb.gov.ph/sna/default.asp)

3 As classified under the 2008 System of National Accounts.

4 Household Final Consumption Expenditure averaged 73.3 % of GDP and 55.2% GNI(GNP)  for 2009-2011.

5 Under the Philippine Statistical Development Program, 2011-2017, the Philippine Statistical System will review the household survey program of government to be able to respond to user needs for more frequent reporting of official poverty statistics, among others.

6 The five richest Pinoy families according to the 2012 Forbes List. (http://www.forbes.com/philippines-billionaires/)

7 Ratio of savings to income

Table 1. Total Income, Expenditure and Savings of Families, Philippines:
2003, 2006 and 2009
In current prices

2003 2006 2009
Total Percent Share to Income Total Percent Share to Income Total Percent Share to Income
Income 2,437,249,560,576 3,006,103,973,888 3,804,325,486,592
Expenditure 2,038,470,715,392 83.6 2,561,437,335,552 85.2 3,239,185,965,056 85.1
Savings 398,778,845,184 16.4 444,666,638,336 14.8 565,139,521,536 14.9

Source: Special computations made by the NSCB Technical Staff using public use files of the 2003, 2006, and 2009 Family Income and Expenditures Survey.

 

 

Table 2. CPI and Inflation Rate for All Items, Philippines: 2003, 2006 and 2009

2003 2006 2009
CPI for all items 113.8 137.9 160.0
  2003-2006 2006-2009  
Inflation rate for all items 21.2 16.0  

Source: National Statistics Office

 

 

Table 3. Average Per Capita Income, Expenditure and Savings of Families, Philippines:
2003, 2006 and 2009
In Current and Constant Prices

Current Constant (2000 prices)
2003 2006 2009 2003 2006 2009
Income 35,597 41,911  51,169    31,280 30,393 31,980
Expenditure 29,610 35,476  43,238    26,019  25,726 27,023
Savings 5,987 6,436  7,931   5,261 4,667  4,957

Source: Special computations made by the NSCB Technical Staff using public use files of the 2003, 2006, and 2009 Family Income and Expenditures Survey.

 

 

Table 4. Percentage of families with and without savings, Philippines:
2003, 2006 and 2009

2003 2006 2009
With Savings 65.53 65.09 65.87
Without Savings 34.47 34.91 34.13
Total 100.00 100.00 100.00

Source: Special computations made by the NSCB Technical Staff using public use files of the 2003, 2006, and 2009 Family Income and Expenditures Survey.

Note: Without savings means the savings is less than or equal to 0.

 

Table 5. Average Per Capita Income and Surpluses of Families with Savings, Philippines:
2003, 2006 and 2009

2003 2006 2009
Income   42,937.02 50,481.44  61,285.18
Surplus   10,692.95 11,982.16 14,297.81
Savings to income ratio   24.90  23.74  23.33

Source: Special computations made by the NSCB Technical Staff using public use files of the 2003, 2006, and 2009 Family Income and Expenditures Survey.

Table 6. Average Per Capita Income and Deficits of Families without savings, Philippines: 2003, 2006 and 2009

2003 2006 2009
Income 21,644.21 25,930.17 31,644.52
Deficit  (2,959.14) (3,907.00) (4,356.08)
Deficit to income ratio  (13.67) (15.07)   (13.77)

Source: Special computations made by the NSCB Technical Staff using public use files of the 2003, 2006, and 2009 Family Income and Expenditures Survey.

 

 

Table 7. Distribution of Expenditures of "Savers" and "Non-savers", Philippines:
2003, 2006 and 2009

Savers Non-savers Difference (savers - nonsavers)
2003 2006 2009 2003-2009 Average 1/ 2003 2006 2009 2003-2009 Average 1/ 2003 2006 2009 2003-2009 Average1/ of the difference between expenditures of (savers - non savers)
Basic Expenditure 88.43 88.69 88.76 88.63 88.82 88.89 89.15 88.95 (0.40) (0.19) (0.39)  (0.33)

Food

49.85 48.38 49.27 49.17 54.21 52.45 53.81 53.49 (4.36) (4.06) (4.55)   (4.32)

Tent/rent value of occupied dwelling units

12.01 11.96 11.98 11.98 9.94 10.17 10.13 10.08 2.06 1.79 1.85   1.90

Transportation and Communication

5.81 6.65 6.47 6.31 4.60 5.36 5.24 5.06 1.22 1.29 1.24  1.25

Fuel, light and water

6.87 7.87 7.29 7.34 6.62 7.51 6.89 7.00 0.25 0.37 0.40  0.34

Education

2.61 2.86 2.83 2.76 2.53 2.67 2.62 2.60  0.08 0.19 0.21 0.16

Medical Care

1.70 2.07 2.14 1.97 1.92 2.39 2.38 2.23 (0.22) (0.32) (0.24)   (0.26)

Non-durable furnishing

0.23 0.18 0.18 0.19 0.22 0.16 0.15 0.18 0.01  0.01 0.02 0.01

House maintenance and repair

0.61 0.50 0.51 0.54 0.66 0.54 0.47 0.56 (0.05) (0.04) 0.04   (0.02)

Household Operation

1.85 1.96 1.96 1.92 1.74 1.80 1.79 1.78 0.12 0.16 0.17 0.15

Personal Care and Effects

4.04 3.91 3.94 3.97 3.81 3.73 3.74 3.76 0.23 0.18 0.20 0.21

Clothing, footwear and other wears

2.84 2.36 2.20 2.47 2.59 2.11 1.93 2.21 0.26 0.25 0.27  0.26
 
Non-Basic Expenditure 11.57 11.31 11.24 11.37 11.18 11.11 10.85 11.05 0.40 0.19 0.39 0.33

Recreation

0.33 0.34 0.30 0.32 0.26 0.25 0.24 0.25 0.07  0.09 0.06  0.08

Alcoholic Beverage

0.92 0.89 0.86 0.89 1.04 0.96 0.93 0.97 (0.12) (0.07) (0.07)  (0.08)

Tobacco

1.47 1.24 1.11 1.28 1.68 1.44 1.31 1.48 (0.21) (0.20) (0.19) (0.20)

Durable furnishing

1.44 1.30 1.31 1.35 1.94 2.10 2.10 2.05 (0.50) (0.79) (0.79) (0.69)

Taxes

1.23 1.03 1.14 1.14 0.66 0.52 0.52 0.57 0.58 0.51 0.62   0.57

Special family occasion

2.35 2.46 2.38 2.40 1.96 2.19 2.14 2.09 0.39 0.28 0.25 0.30

Gifts and contribution

1.06 1.20 1.31 1.19 0.71 0.74 0.77 0.74 0.35 0.47 0.54 0.45

Other expenditures

2.76 2.84 2.80 2.80 2.93 2.92 2.85 2.90 (0.16) (0.08) (0.04) (0.10)

Source: Special computations made by the NSCB Technical Staff using public use files of the 2003, 2006, and 2009 Family Income and Expenditures Survey.

Note: 1/ - Computed as a simple average.

Table 8. Average savings to income ratio of savers by region: 2003, 2006 and 2009

 

Philippines / Region 2003 2006 2009 Average of 2003-2009
Savings to income ratio Rank of Poverty Incidence among families (least poor=1 to poorest=17) Savings to income ratio Rank of Poverty Incidence among families (least poor=1 to poorest=17) Savings to income ratio Rank of Poverty Incidence among families (least poor=1 to poorest=17) Savings to income ratio
Ratio Rank (highest=1 to lowest=17) Ratio Rank (highest=1 to lowest=17) Ratio Rank (highest=1 to lowest=17) Ratio Rank (highest=1 to lowest=17)
NCR 0.183 12 1 0.192 6 1 0.151 15 1 0.175 12
CAR 0.237 1 5 0.239 1 5 0.227 1 5 0.234 1
Region I 0.207 4 6 0.174 12 6 0.179 9 6 0.187 6
Region II 0.217 2 4 0.204 3 4 0.214 2 4 0.212 2
Region III 0.185 10 3 0.177 11 3 0.173 10 3 0.178 11
Region IV-A 0.167 15 2 0.152 15 2 0.157 14 2 0.159 15
Region IV-B 0.195 7 11 0.172 13 14 0.181 6 9 0.183 7
Region V 0.162 16 16 0.144 16 15 0.142 16 14 0.149 16
Region VI 0.152 17 7 0.130 17 7 0.123 17 7 0.135 17
Region VII 0.201 5 13 0.196 5 12 0.200 3 11 0.199 4
Region VIII 0.186 8 12 0.180 9 10 0.181 8 13 0.182 8
Region IX 0.200 6 17 0.200 4 13 0.193 4 15 0.198 5
Region X 0.184 11 14 0.187 8 11 0.173 11 12 0.181 10
Region XI 0.176 13 9 0.187 7 8 0.181 7 8 0.182 9
Region XII 0.215 3 10 0.209 2 9 0.192 5 10 0.206 3
ARMM 0.185 9 8 0.169 14 16 0.160 13 16 0.172 14
Caraga 0.175 14 15 0.177 10 17 0.166 12 17 0.173 13

Source: Special computations made by the NSCB Technical Staff using public use files of the 2003, 2006, and 2009 Family Income and Expenditures Survey.

Note: Ranking: 1- Highest 17-Lowest

 

 

Table 9. Average deficit to income ratio of non-savers by region: 2003, 2006 and 2009

Philippines / Region 2003 2006 2009 Average of 2003-2009
Ratio of income deficit to total income Rank of Poverty Incidence among families (least poor=1 to poorest=17) Ratio of income deficit to total income Rank of Poverty Incidence among families (least poor=1 to poorest=17) Ratio of income deficit to total income Rank of Poverty Incidence among families (least poor=1 to poorest=17) Ratio of income deficit to total income
Ratio Rank (highest=1 to lowest=17) Ratio Rank (highest=1 to lowest=17) Ratio Rank (highest=1 to lowest=17) Ratio Rank (highest=1 to lowest=17)
NCR 0.122 2 1 0.148 3 1 0.113 2 1 0.128 3
CAR 0.203 16 5 0.229 16 5 0.206 17 5 0.213 16
Region I 0.192 15 6 0.167 8 6 0.152 9 6 0.170 14
Region II 0.166 11 4 0.162 6 4 0.174 15 4 0.167 12
Region III 0.131 5 3 0.159 4 3 0.141 7 3 0.144 4
Region IV-A 0.158 8 2 0.162 5 2 0.161 12 2 0.160 9
Region IV-B 0.160 9 11 0.176 14 14 0.154 10 9 0.163 10
Region V 0.163 10 16 0.170 12 15 0.139 6 14 0.158 7
Region VI 0.116 1 7 0.108 1 7 0.101 1 7 0.108 1
Region VII 0.171 13 13 0.167 9 12 0.164 14 11 0.168 13
Region VIII 0.129 4 12 0.169 11 10 0.156 11 13 0.151 6
Region IX 0.192 14 17 0.187 15 13 0.138 5 15 0.172 15
Region X 0.135 6 14 0.168 10 11 0.136 4 12 0.146 5
Region XI 0.168 12 9 0.175 13 8 0.151 8 8 0.165 11
Region XII 0.206 17 10 0.287 17 9 0.183 16 10 0.225 17
ARMM 0.124 3 8 0.137 2 16 0.121 3 16 0.127 2
Caraga 0.149 7 15 0.163 7 17 0.161 13 17 0.158 8

Source: Special computations made by the NSCB Technical Staff using public use files of the 2003, 2006, and 2009 Family Income and Expenditures Survey.

 

 

Table 10. Average savings/deficits to income ratio, by sex of the household head: 2003, 2006 and 2009

Male-Headed Households (MHH) Female-Headed Households (FHH) Diffference
2003 2006 2009 2003-2009 Average 1/ 2003 2006 2009 2003-2009 Average1/ 2003 2006 2009 2003-2009 Average 1/ of the difference between male- and female-headed households (MHH-FHH)
With savings 0.18 0.18 0.17 0.17 0.20 0.18 0.18 0.19 (0.01) (0.01) (0.01) (0.01)
Without savings (0.15) (0.17) (0.15) (0.16) (0.14) (0.16) (0.14) (0.14) (0.02) (0.01) (0.01) (0.01)

Source: Special computations made by the NSCB Technical Staff using public use files of the 2003, 2006, and 2009 Family Income and Expenditures Survey.

Note:
1/ - Computed as a simple average

Table 11a. Distribution of expenditures among savers, by sex of the household head:
2003, 2006 and 2009

Male-Headed Households Female-Headed Households Difference
(male-female headed household)
2003 2006 2009 2003-2009 Average1/ 2003 2006 2009 2003-2009 Average1/ 2003 2006 2009 2003-2009 Average1/ of the difference between male- and female-headed households (MHH-FHH)
Basic Expenditure 88.16 88.53 88.58 88.42 89.62 89.32 89.39 89.44 (1.45) (0.79) (0.81) (1.02)

Food

50.72 49.46 50.33 50.17 45.95 44.23 45.71 45.30 4.77 5.23 4.62 4.87

Rent/rent value of occupied dwelling units

11.38 11.26 11.24 11.29 14.83 14.65 14.47 14.65 (3.45) (3.39) (3.23) (3.36)

Transportation and Communication

5.68 6.58 6.45 6.23 6.43 6.92 6.56 6.64 (0.76) (0.34) (0.11) (0.40)

Fuel, light and water

6.74 7.71 7.14 7.20 7.46 8.49 7.79 7.91 (0.72) (0.77) (0.66) (0.72)

Education

2.53 2.76 2.76 2.68 2.94 3.23 3.06 3.08 (0.40) (0.47) (0.30) (0.39)

Medical Care

1.61 1.95 2.00 1.85 2.07 2.55 2.61 2.41 (0.46) (0.60) (0.61) (0.56)

Non-durable furnishing

0.23 0.18 0.18 0.20 0.22 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.01

House maintenance and repair

0.58 0.49 0.50 0.52 0.70 0.53 0.54 0.59 (0.12) (0.05) (0.04) (0.07)

Household Operation

1.80 1.90 1.89 1.86 2.10 2.19 2.17 2.15 (0.30) (0.28) (0.28) (0.29)

Personal Care and Effects

4.02 3.89 3.89 3.93 4.16 4.03 4.11 4.10 (0.14) (0.14) (0.22) (0.17)

Clothing, footwear and other wears

2.87 2.36 2.20 2.48 2.75 2.35 2.19 2.43 0.12 0.00 0.02 0.04
Non-Basic Expenditure 11.84 11.47 11.42 11.58 10.38 10.68 10.61 10.56 1.45 0.79 0.81 1.02

Recreation

0.33 0.34 0.29 0.32 0.34 0.34 0.35 0.34 (0.00) (0.00) (0.06) (0.02)

Alcoholic Beverage

1.02 1.00 0.97 0.99 0.48 0.48 0.50 0.49 0.53 0.52 0.47 0.51

Tobacco

1.62 1.38 1.25 1.42 0.79 0.71 0.67 0.72 0.83 0.67 0.58 0.69

Durable furnishing

1.45 1.29 1.32 1.35 1.38 1.36 1.28 1.34 0.07 (0.07) 0.04 0.01

Taxes

1.21 1.03 1.14 1.13 1.34 1.01 1.15 1.17 (0.13) 0.02 (0.00) (0.04)

Special family occasion

2.34 2.36 2.25 2.32 2.37 2.85 2.82 2.68 (0.03) (0.48) (0.56) (0.36)

Gifts and contribution

1.02 1.14 1.27 1.14 1.27 1.44 1.46 1.39 (0.26) (0.30) (0.20) (0.25)

Other expenditures

2.85 2.93 2.93 2.90 2.40 2.49 2.39 2.43 0.44 0.44 0.54 0.48

Source: Special computations made by the NSCB Technical Staff using public use files of the 2003, 2006, and 2009 Family Income and Expenditures Survey.

Note:
1/ - Computed as a simple average.

Table 11b. Distribution of expenditures among non-savers, by sex of the household head:
2003, 2006 and 2009

Male-Headed Households Female-Headed Households Difference (male-female headed household)
2003 2006 2009 2003-2009 Average1/ 2003 2006 2009 2003-2009 Average1/ 2003 2006 2009 2003-2009 Average1/ of the difference between male- and female-headed households (MHH-FHH)
Basic Expenditure 88.63 88.81 89.14 88.86 90.18 89.32 89.20 89.57 (1.56) (0.51) (0.05) (0.71)

Food

54.79 53.15 54.78 54.24 50.26 48.55 49.34 49.38 4.53 4.59 5.44 4.85

Tent/rent value of occupied dwelling units

9.54 9.66 9.57 9.59 12.68 12.98 12.71 12.79 (3.14) (3.31) (3.13) (3.20)

Transportation and Communication

4.48 5.35 5.18 5.01 5.39 5.38 5.48 5.42 (0.92) (0.02) (0.30) (0.41)

Fuel, light and water

6.55 7.38 6.78 6.90 7.08 8.20 7.41 7.56 (0.53) (0.81) (0.63) (0.66)

Education

2.44 2.66 2.60 2.57 3.08 2.72 2.71 2.84 (0.64) (0.06) (0.11) (0.27)

Medical Care

1.86 2.28 2.20 2.11 2.29 3.01 3.21 2.84 (0.42) (0.73) (1.01) (0.72)

Non-durable furnishing

0.22 0.17 0.16 0.18 0.20 0.16 0.15 0.17 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01

House maintenance and repair

0.66 0.53 0.47 0.55 0.66 0.59 0.50 0.58 (0.01) (0.06) (0.04) (0.03)

Household Operation

1.70 1.78 1.74 1.74 1.96 1.93 1.99 1.96 (0.26) (0.15) (0.25) (0.22)

Personal Care and Effects

3.79 3.72 3.72 3.74 3.97 3.78 3.85 3.87 (0.18) (0.05) (0.14) (0.12)

Clothing, footwear and other wears

2.59 2.12 1.95 2.22 2.60 2.03 1.84 2.16 (0.01) 0.10 0.10 0.06
Non-Basic Expenditure 11.37 11.19 10.86 11.14 9.82 10.68 10.80 10.43 1.56 0.51 0.05 0.71

Recreation

0.26 0.25 0.23 0.24 0.27 0.27 0.26 0.27 (0.02) (0.02) (0.03) (0.02)

Alcoholic Beverage

1.12 1.04 1.02 1.06 0.49 0.52 0.51 0.51 0.63 0.51 0.50 0.55

Tobacco

1.80 1.55 1.42 1.59 0.86 0.80 0.80 0.82 0.94 0.75 0.62 0.77

Durable furnishing

1.95 2.12 2.14 2.07 1.89 1.97 1.92 1.93 0.06 0.15 0.22 0.14

Taxes

0.63 0.52 0.51 0.55 0.83 0.54 0.59 0.65 (0.20) (0.02) (0.09) (0.10)

Special family occasion

1.96 2.02 1.90 1.96 1.97 3.10 3.21 2.76 (0.01) (1.08) (1.31) (0.80)

Gifts and contribution

0.69 0.71 0.74 0.71 0.89 0.90 0.92 0.90 (0.21) (0.19) (0.18) (0.19)

Other expenditures

2.97 2.98 2.90 2.95 2.62 2.58 2.58 2.59 0.36 0.40 0.32 0.36

Source: Special computations made by the NSCB Technical Staff using public use files of the 2003, 2006, and 2009 Family Income and Expenditures Survey.

Note:
1/ - Computed as a simple average.

Table 12. Average savings/deficits to income ratio, by marital status of the household head: 2003, 2006 and 2009

  Marital Status of the Household Head
Single Married Diffference
2003 2006 2009 2003-2009 Average 1/ 2003 2006 2009 2003-2009 Average 1/ 2003 2006 2009 2003-2009 Average 1/ of the difference between households whose head is single and married
With savings 0.19 0.18 0.16 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.17 0.18 0.01 0.01 (0.01) 0.00
Without savings (0.15) (0.16) (0.14) (0.15) (0.15) (0.17) (0.15) (0.16) 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01

Source: Special computations made by the NSCB Technical Staff using public use files of the 2003, 2006, and 2009 Family Income and Expenditures Survey.

Note:
1/ - Computed as a simple average.

Table 13a. Distribution of expenditures among savers, by marital status of the household head:
2003, 2006 and 2009

  Marital Status of the Household Head
Single Married Difference (single-married)
2003 2006 2009 2003-2009 Average1/ 2003 2006 2009 2003-2009 Average1/ 2003 2006 2009 2003-2009 Average1/ of the difference between households whose head is single and married
Basic Expenditure 87.15 87.59 87.91 87.55 88.29 88.67 88.70 88.55 (1.14) (1.08) (0.79) (1.00)

Food

44.12 43.53 43.65 43.77 50.39 49.00 49.90 49.76 (6.27) (5.47) (6.24) (5.99)

Rent/rent value of occupied dwelling units

16.70 16.99 16.99 16.89 11.33 11.21 11.14 11.22 5.37 5.78 5.85 5.67

Transportation and Communication

6.45 6.82 6.75 6.67 5.82 6.74 6.60 6.39 0.63 0.07 0.15 0.28

Fuel, light and water

6.40 7.55 7.37 7.11 6.78 7.78 7.18 7.25 (0.38) (0.23) 0.19 (0.14)

Education

2.02 1.78 2.22 2.01 2.73 3.04 3.05 2.94 (0.72) (1.26) (0.84) (0.94)

Medical Care

1.70 1.91 2.30 1.97 1.63 1.94 1.97 1.85 0.07 (0.03) 0.32 0.12

Non-durable furnishing

0.19 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.24 0.19 0.18 0.20 (0.04) (0.07) (0.06) (0.06)

House maintenance and repair

0.49 0.39 0.31 0.40 0.61 0.50 0.53 0.55 (0.12) (0.11) (0.22) (0.15)

Household Operation

1.90 2.14 2.13 2.05 1.83 1.93 1.93 1.89 0.07 0.20 0.20 0.16

Personal Care and Effects

4.10 3.89 3.86 3.95 4.07 3.95 3.97 4.00 0.03 (0.06) (0.11) (0.05)

Clothing, footwear and other wears

3.08 2.48 2.19 2.58 2.86 2.38 2.24 2.49 0.22 0.10 (0.04) 0.09
Non-Basic Expenditure 12.85 12.41 12.09 12.45 11.71 11.33 11.30 11.45 1.14 1.08 0.79 1.00

Recreation

0.40 0.36 0.36 0.37 0.34 0.35 0.30 0.33 0.07 0.01 0.06 0.05

Alcoholic Beverage

1.11 1.14 0.93 1.06 0.94 0.90 0.87 0.90 0.17 0.25 0.05 0.16

Tobacco

1.41 1.20 1.05 1.22 1.52 1.28 1.15 1.32 (0.11) (0.08) (0.10) (0.10)

Durable furnishing

1.08 1.33 1.23 1.21 1.52 1.36 1.39 1.42 (0.43) (0.02) (0.16) (0.21)

Taxes

1.92 1.10 1.67 1.56 1.23 1.06 1.16 1.15 0.69 0.04 0.51 0.41

Special family occasion

1.76 2.03 2.17 1.99 2.36 2.37 2.25 2.33 (0.60) (0.35) (0.08) (0.34)

Gifts and contribution

2.29 2.58 2.16 2.35 0.98 1.11 1.26 1.12 1.31 1.47 0.91 1.23

Other expenditures

2.88 2.66 2.52 2.69 2.83 2.91 2.92 2.88 0.05 (0.24) (0.40) (0.20)

Source: Special computations made by the NSCB Technical Staff using public use files of the 2003, 2006, and 2009 Family Income and Expenditures Survey.

Note:
1/ - Computed as a simple average.

Table 13b. Distribution of expenditures among non-savers, by marital status of the household head:
2003, 2006 and 2009

  Marital Status of the Household Head
Single Married Difference
(single-married)
2003 2006 2009 2003-2009 Average1/ 2003 2006 2009 2003-2009 Average1/ 2003 2006 2009 2003-2009 Average1/ of the difference between households whose head is single and married
Basic Expenditure 87.75 88.66 87.71 88.04 88.73 88.88 89.25 88.95 (0.97) (0.21) (1.54) (0.91)

Food

47.25 46.77 47.25 47.09 54.71 53.03 54.64 54.13 (7.46) (6.27) (7.39) (7.04)

Rent/rent value of occupied dwelling units

14.47 15.87 15.94 15.43 9.50 9.53 9.45 9.50 4.97 6.34 6.49 5.93

Transportation and Communication

5.67 5.53 5.21 5.47 4.54 5.45 5.29 5.09 1.13 0.09 (0.08) 0.38

Fuel, light and water

6.54 7.58 7.07 7.06 6.55 7.42 6.78 6.92 (0.02) 0.16 0.29 0.14

Education

2.77 2.07 2.09 2.31 2.51 2.79 2.77 2.69 0.26 (0.72) (0.67) (0.38)

Medical Care

1.61 2.31 2.10 2.00 1.89 2.25 2.21 2.11 (0.28) 0.06 (0.11) (0.11)

Non-durable furnishing

0.20 0.12 0.13 0.15 0.23 0.17 0.16 0.19 (0.03) (0.05) (0.03) (0.04)

House maintenance and repair

0.40 0.42 0.45 0.42 0.67 0.55 0.47 0.56 (0.27) (0.13) (0.03) (0.14)

Household Operation

1.83 1.99 2.04 1.96 1.72 1.79 1.76 1.75 0.11 0.21 0.29 0.20

Personal Care and Effects

4.08 3.73 3.44 3.75 3.82 3.77 3.77 3.79 0.26 (0.04) (0.33) (0.04)

Clothing, footwear and other wears

2.94 2.27 2.00 2.40 2.59 2.14 1.96 2.23 0.35 0.13 0.05 0.17
Non-Basic Expenditure 12.25 11.34 12.29 11.96 11.27 11.12 10.75 11.05 0.97 0.21 1.54 0.91

Recreation

0.38 0.34 0.37 0.36 0.26 0.25 0.23 0.25 0.12 0.08 0.13 0.11

Alcoholic Beverage

1.25 1.18 1.30 1.24 1.07 0.99 0.95 1.00 0.18 0.19 0.35 0.24

Tobacco

1.54 1.48 1.50 1.51 1.75 1.49 1.33 1.52 (0.21) (0.01) 0.17 (0.01)

Durable furnishing

1.42 1.30 1.03 1.25 2.02 2.22 2.29 2.18 (0.60) (0.92) (1.26) (0.93)

Taxes

1.17 0.85 1.21 1.08 0.64 0.52 0.51 0.56 0.54 0.33 0.70 0.52

Special family occasion

1.74 2.10 2.46 2.10 1.96 2.00 1.82 1.93 (0.22) 0.09 0.64 0.17

Gifts and contribution

1.79 1.46 1.47 1.57 0.65 0.70 0.73 0.70 1.13 0.76 0.73 0.88

Other expenditures

2.96 2.63 2.95 2.84 2.93 2.94 2.87 2.92 0.03 (0.32) 0.07 (0.07)

Source: Special computations made by the NSCB Technical Staff using public use files of the 2003, 2006, and 2009 Family Income and Expenditures Survey.

Note:
1/ - Computed as a simple average.

Posted: 09 July 2012

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